Revolutionary War 1776
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America.
After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its American colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act which escalated into boycotts. In 1773, heated emotions of the colonist increased which culminated with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power.
The British made numerous attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord which led to open combat on April 19, 1775. As the Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, the new Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale dwindling. Although, with victories at Trenton and Princeton help restored the American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777.
Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781.
Perhaps two of the most important lessons in this revolution are (Representation of taxation) as this also started the American Civil War between Southern States and Northern States nearly 100 years later. People should run the Government and the government should be fair to the people. Second, is to try and disarm the people. The 2nd amendment of the Constitution reads; " A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed." This is often argued between pro and anti gun feelings. However, it means that people have the right to own and bear arms. A well regulated Militia can be easily consider the State National Guard, but the words strongly indicate that people have the right to own guns.
In the failed attempts to disarm Massachusetts, a nation was able to grow and gain independence. One may state, alright, we now have a great nation with a strong military. We no longer need to be armed. True and not true. Yes the United States has grown to be able to take care of her people, nevertheless, like many great nations, history has over and over seen uprising within governments that infringe on the people unjustly. During the Revolutionary War, these weapons were mere single shot musket rifles and pistol. Today, modern weapons are numerous ranging from 5.56 M2, M4 carbines, AK47, etc. Once more, further argument as to what is dictated by the meaning of arms. The answer during the revolutionary war was the same firearms that the military carried. Surely, our forefathers did not see the great advancements that would come in the future, but the meaning implied then should remain as today.
However, "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" is a well-known phrase in the United States Declaration of Independence. The phrase gives three examples of the "unalienable rights" which the Declaration says have been given to all human beings by their creator, and which governments are created to protect. This is highly important to understand. This means, that while the 2nd amendment gives me the right to bear arms, it does not give me the right to interfere with your right to pursuit happiness. Gun owners need to be responsible and people need to live comfortably never fearing some gun toting radical may come about blazing the will ends one life, their liberty or pursuit of happiness. Perhaps education is the answer and the lack of it the problem in a modern society.
The main weapons of the American Revolution were the muzzleloading flintlock musket, its attached bayonet, and the cannon. Secondary weapons were the pistol, swords and other cutting weapons. By far, the most common weapon was the smoothbore flintlock musket, of a large caliber, .62 to .75 inch bore, or equal from a 16 to 11 gauge shotgun.